Collecting data

Data used for anthropological reports and research projects at ADBOU are collected according to a set of osteological tools described in Human Osteological Methods

Besides the methods described in the manual Prof. Jesper Boldsen in collaboration with Prof. George R. Milner, Pennsylvania State University, USA have developed a method for age estimation called the Transition analysis. The method is currently under revision in the NIJ project.

Description of Transitionsanalysis and illustrations are available for download.

Analysing data


The Lambda calculator (for windows) estimates the likelihood of an individual having leprosy from data collected about the presence of seven leprosy-related lesions in the skeleton. 

The theory behind the calculator is described in the article:

Boldsen, J.L. 2008. Leprosy in the Early medieval Lauchheim community, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 135, s. 301-310. 

Sex determination

The Sigma calculator (for windows and mac) estimated the likelihood of a skeleton being that of a male or a female. It uses data collected about diameter of heads of femoris and humeri.

The theory behind the calculator is described in the article:

Milner, G.M. & J.L. Boldsen 2012. Humeral and Femoral Head Diameters in Recent White American Skeletons, Journal of Forensic Science, vol. 57, s. 35-40.